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Ⅰ. Introduction 13
Ⅱ. Literature Review 15
1. Modern biological control 15
2. Characteristics of V. lecanii 17
3. Aphid pathogenic fungi 19
4. Persistence of conidia in the field 21
5. Interactions between entomopathogenic fungi and other control agents 22
6. Infection modes and the influence of spore treatments on insect biology 23
Ⅲ. Materials and Methods 24
1. General materials 24
1) Entomopathogenic fungi 24
2) Aphid 24
2. Experiments 25
1) Factors affecting the mortality of cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, by Verticillium lecanii CS 625 25
2) Influence of V. lecanii CS625 on the development of A. gossypii 28
3) Factors affecting the development of V. lecanii CS 625 29
4) Influence on natural enemies of A. gossypii by V. lecanii CS 625 32
5) Control of A. gossypii by V. lecanii CS 625 in greenhouse 33
Ⅳ. Results and Discussion 36
1. Control efficacy of V. lecanii CS 625 against Aphis gossypii 36
2. Virulence of V. lecanii CS625 at different developmental stages of cotton ahpid: 43
3. Influence of V. lecanii CS625 on the the development and reproduction of cotton 53
4. Factors affecting the persistence of V. lecanii CS625 57
5. Influence of V. lecanii CS625 on aphid natural enemies : 67
6. Field evaluation of the entomopathogenic fungus V. lecanii CS625 for control of 71
감사의 글 95
Fig. 1. Cumulative mortality of A. gossypii nymphs by V. lecanii CS625 at different temperatures (mean±SE) 40
Fig. 2. Corrected mortality of 3-day-old nymphs of cotton aphid at different relative humidities by conidia of V. lecanii CS625 (mean±SE) 41
Fig. 3. Corrected mortality of 3-day-old cotton aphid by V. lecanii CS625 on cucumber leaf at different conidial concentrations (mean±SE) 42
Fig. 4. Corrected mortality of cotton aphid at different developmental stages by V. lecanii CS625. Spore suspension of 1×108conidia/㎖was sprayed on 1-day-old and 3-day-old nymphs and adults 44
Fig. 5. Scanning electron micrographs of germinating and infecting spores of V. lecanii CS625 on aphid cuticle after spore treatment 45
Fig. 6. Number of spores and mycelial fragments of V. lecanii CS625 in homogenates of surface sterilized fungus-treated cotton aphids (mean±SE) 46
Fig. 7. Number of spores and mycelial fragments of V. lecanii CS625 attached on the surface of newly-born aphid nymphs on the 8th-day cucumber leaf sprayed with 104, 106, and 108 conidia/㎖, respectively 52
Fig. 8. Number of spores and mycelial fragments of the cucumber leaf surface (mean± SE). The cucumber leaf was treated with a spore suspension (1×108conidia/㎖) and stored in a plant growth box at 25℃ in 16L : 8D photoperiod an 60
Fig. 9. Corrected mortality of newly born nymphs of cotton aphid reproduced on cucumber leaf, which had V. lecanii CS625 growing for 15 days (mean�SE) 61
Fig. 10. Number of spores and mycelial fragments of V. lecanii CS625 persisting on the red pepper leaves infected with cotton aphids in greenhouse after spore sprays (mean�SE). This experiment was conducted from Nov. 5 . 20, 2001, 62
Fig. 11. Mean relative percent culturability of V. lecanii CS625 after exposure for 1, and 4 hours to the irradiance of 817 mWm-2. Culturability was calculated in relation to non-irradiated controls (mean�SE) 63
Fig. 12. Mean relative percent culturability of V. lecanii CS625 mixed with chemicals after exposure for 1(A), 2(B), and 4(C) hours to the irradiance of 817 mWm Culturability was calculated in relation to non-irradiated controls 65
Fig. 13. Number of spores and mycelial fragments of V. lecanii CS625 on the larvae of A.colemani after spore spraying the different developmental stages of A. colemani 68
Fig. 14. Photographs of the mummified A. colemani. Mycosis and the development and shape of A. colemani differ according to the spore treatment time and developmental stage of a parasitoid 70
Fig. 15. Corrected mortality of larvae of green lacewing (C. pallens) by V. lecanii CS625 71
Fig. 16. Temperature and relative humidity in farmer's greenhouse planted cucumber from late Feb. to mid Jun. in 2001 in Pyeongtaek, Gyeonggi province 73
Fig. 17. The population change rates and instantaneous rates of increase (ri) for cotton aphid on red pepper after sprays of V. lecanii CS625 spores in a greenhouse 74
Table 1. Original hosts and geographical locations of isolates examined 25
Table 2. Corrected mortality and LT50 of 3-day-old nymphs of A. gossypii 5 days after treatment with conidia and blastospores by native strains of entomopathogenic fungi 37
Table 3. Spore germination and mycelial growth of V. lecanii CS625 at different temperatures 38
Table 4. LT50 of cotton aphid after treatment with V. lecanii CS625 at different developmental stages of cotton aphid 44
Table 5. Number of spores and mycelial fragments of V. lecanii CS625 on the whole cotton aphid after spore-suspension treatments (mean±SE) 46
Table 6. Number of the adhered spores and germination rates on the dorsal side of insects observed by a scanning electron microscope 24 hours after spore treatment 47
Table 7. Number of spores and mycelial fragments of V. lecanii CS625 attached on the molted nymphs and exuviae after ecdysis of each stage 50
Table 8. ANOVA of number of spores and mycelial fragments of V. lecanii CS attached on the molted nymphs and exuviae after ecdysis of each stage 51
Table 9. Effect of conidial concentrations of V. lecanii CS625 on molting parameters of cotton aphid, A. gossypii, on cucumber 54
Table 10. Effect of conidial concentrations of V. lecanii CS625 on fecundity parameters of cotton aphid, A. gossypii, on cucumber 56
Table 11. Inhibition by fungicides of spore germination and mycelial growth of V. lecanii CS625 on agar 58
Table 12. Inhibition by insecticides of spore germination and mycelial growth of V. lecanii CS625 on agar 59
Table 13. Mean relative culturability of V. lecanii CS625 mixed with chemicals that may protect conidia from UV irradiation. Culturability was calculated in relation to non-mixed controls 64
Table 14. Influence of vegetable oils on spore germination of V. lecanii CS625 for hours incubation at 25℃ 66
Table 15. Mycosis, mummification and adult emergence rates of the aphid parasitoid A. colemani after spore sprays of V. lecanii CS625 on different days following parasitoid exposure. Adult emergence was investigated on days 9 68
Table 16. Population change ratios for cotton aphids on greenhouse cucumbers treated with V. lecanii CS625 conidial suspensions (mean±SE, 1×108 conidia/㎖) once or by a second application 5 days after the first. A ratio ]1.0 ind 76
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